The 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian) or Legione SS Italiana was created on 10 February 1945 as the second SS-Division numbered 29. The first, the 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Russian), was disbanded.
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The Kingdom of Italy on 8 September 1943 signed an armistice with the Allies. In response, the German Army and the Waffen-SS disarmed Italian troops unless they were fighting for the German cause. The new Italian Social Republic was founded on 23 September 1943 under dictator Benito Mussolini and this allowed Italians to be recruited to fight against the Allies. On 2 October 1943, Heinrich Himmler and Gottlob Berger devised the Programm zur Aufstellung der italienischen Milizeinheiten durch die Waffen-SS which was approved by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.